- Journals, newsletters, and series
By definition a journal is a "periodical publication"
(OED sb. 6) and by convention one that is published in volumes or issues
containing individual contributions. Although some online series conform to the usual sense of "journal", the medium may arguably be said to work against the conventional format. In any case, those publications that are not issued regularly, and which may not publish in issues but whenever individual items are ready for distribution,
we designate here as series. For an analysis of the variety of this kind, see Typologies
for online journals and series.
- Books and monographs
Scholarly books and monographs put on the Web for the first time would appear to be extremely rare. For proper editions of primary material, the tendency would seem to be to create an electronic "archive", for which see below. Otherwise, primary sources already edited or otherwise produced for print are put into the electronic medium with widely varying degrees of care, from almost none at all to quite faithful transcriptions. Note particularly two very promising and new categories: (1) the authorial post-print, and (2) the electronic counterpart or companion to the printed book.
- Transcribed books based on print editions
- Hilton, Nelson, ed., Blake Digital Text Project, based on The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. David V. Erdman. Black-and-white images of individual poems in the
Songs of Innocence and Experience in the various editions, hypertextually linked. URL: http://virtual.park.uga.edu/~wblake/home.html. Note the newly published Online Concordance to eE, i.e. to The Electronic Edition of The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, Newly Revised Edition, ed. David V. Erdman (Doubleday, 1988), at the URL: http://virtual.park.uga.edu/Blake_Concordance/.
- Lancashire, Ian, ed. Representative Poetry. 3rd edn., Univ. of Toronto Press, 1962-63; 1st electronic edn., 15/12/1994. An historical collection of some 730 poems by about 80 poets from Wyatt to Swinburne, edited for the "ordinary reader", originally by various members of the Department of English, Univ. of Toronto. See the editor's note.
- Milton Texts on the Internet, a collection assembled under the aegis of Milton-L, the electronic discussion group for Milton studies. Links to texts by John Milton in electronic form: bare transcriptions into plain (untagged) text from undeclared sources (but see the description of the Milton
Transcription Project); HTML versions, some from Representative Poetry, as above; etc.
- Postprints by the author
One of the more interesting uses of WWW publishing is for "postprints", i.e. online reissues of books formerly in print for which the author holds the copyright.
- Creegan, Charles L. Wittgenstein and Kierkegaard: Religion, Individuality and Philosophical Method. Routledge, 1989; postprint, 1997. URL: http://www.ncwc.edu/~ccreegan/wk/.
- Larue, Gerald A. Old Testament Life and Literature. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. 1968. Postprint, 1997. URL: http://www.infidels.org/library/modern/gerald_larue/otll/.
- O'Donnell, James J. Cassiodorus. Univ. of California Press, 1979; postprint, 1995. Apparently the first of its kind. See the author's explanatory note at the bottom of the page. URL: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/jod/texts/cassbook/toc.html.
- Rheingold, Howard. Tools For Thought: The People and Ideas of the Next Computer Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985. Postprint, n.d. URL: http://www.well.com/user/hlr/texts/tftindex.html.
- Shoaf, R.A. Dante,
Chaucer, and the Currency of the Word: Money, Images, and Reference in Late Medieval Poetry. Pilgrim Books, 1983; postprint, 1995. URL: http://www.clas.ufl.edu/~rashoaf/dccw.html. Link provided to the author's homepage.
- Electronic companions to printed books
- McEnery, Tony and Andrew Wilson, Corpus Linguistics, Web pages to be used to supplement the book Corpus Linguistics, Edinburgh University Press
(ISBN: 0-7486-0808-7). URL: http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/monkey/ihe/linguistics/contents.htm.
- Papert, Seymour, The Connected Family Web Site, companion
and extension of the book, The Connected Family: Bridging the Digital
Generation Gap; a complex and delightful online world.
- Electronic Theses and Dissertations, Scholarly Communications Project, University Libraries, Virginia Tech. URL: http://borg.lib.vt.edu/theses/theses.html.
- Electronic Theses and Dissertations in the Humanities: A Directory of Online References and Resources. Matthew G. Kirschenbaum, University of Virginia. URL: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/ETD/ETD.html.
- Archives and databases
The word archive means conventionally "A place in which
public records or other important historic documents are kept.... A historical
record or document so preserved" (OED 1,2). When applied to
computing, the term usually means simply "a repository" and often
carries the implication of a miscellany or discontinuous collection. An
electronic archive may, however, be tightly unified but, from the perspective
of the conventional book, have the appearance of a miscellany because it
brings together all materials relating to an author or work.
- Iter: The Bibliography of Renaissance Europe (1300-1700), "a not-for-profit partnership formed to provide to the scholarly community an on-line bibliography of the Renaissance (1300 to 1700) and, when the partners decide it is prudent, of the Middle Ages (400 to 1500) as well. Its bibliography will cover all relevant secondary material published since 1700 to the current year. This material will consist of both printed literature and matter in other media." URL: http://utl1.library.utoronto.ca/www/iter/.
- McCarty, Willard &al., Selective Bibliography for Humanities Computing, 2nd edn. URL: http://www.princeton.edu/~mccarty/bibliography/.
Note the comment by Hoyt Duggan (English, Virginia):
"An electronic edition does not suppress editorial disagreement or
impose spurious notions of authority, as printed editions often tend to
do. Instead, it embraces the provisional nature of scholarly editing"
by providing all materials deemed relevant by the editor. The items gathered
here are distinguished from the text and image collections that follow by
being designed for the study of a single work or author, thus the model of
the "edition" seems closer to what is meant by "archive" than that of
- Duggan, Hoyt. The Piers Plowman Electronic Archive, aims at
"the creation of a multi-level, hyper-textually linked electronic
archive of the textual tradition of all three versions of the fourteenth-century
allegorical dream vision Piers Plowman". URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/piers/archive.goals.html
- Eaves, Morris, Robert Essick, and Joseph Viscomi. The
William Blake Archive IATH, Virginia. URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/blake/. "An electronic archive based on the illuminated books of William Blake, heavily supplemented by
his paintings, drawings, and commercial illustrations", in progress
- McGann, Jerome. The
Complete Writings and Pictures of Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Hypermedia
Research Archive. IATH, Virginia. URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/rossetti/rossetti.html. A structured, hypermedia database "holding
digitized images of Rossetti's works in their original documentary forms",
with the painter's poetical manuscripts, early printed texts, drawings
and paintings. "The materials are marked up for electronic search
and analysis, and they are supplied with full scholarly annotations and
- Reisdoerfer, Joseph, Babel: Cours de linguistique diachronique du français, offering Les Serments de Strasbourg and La Cantilène de Sainte Eulalie. URL: http://www.restena.lu/cul/BABEL/1_T_A_Ling_Tit.html. "Les deux documents que nous présentons, Les Serments de Strasbourg et La Cantilène de Sainte
Eulalie font partie du site en préparation BABEL qui sera consacré à l'histoire de la langue française. Ce site est issu d'un cours de linguistique diachronique du français donné au Centre Universitaire du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg (CunLux). Il s'intégrera dans le site ARANEOLA, le site recherche du CunLux, Département des Lettres et des Sciences Humaines."
- Text and image collections
The following are, as above, anthologies of material prepared for scholarly use, though to varying standards.
- ARTFL Project (Chicago), the Project for American and French
Research on the Treasury of the French Language (ARTFL), maintains and
provides access to an online database of ca. 2000 French texts ranging
from classic works of French literature to various kinds of non-fiction
prose and technical writing. URL: http://humanities.uchicago.edu/ARTFL.html.
It serves as the N. American counterpart to Frantext, URL: http://www.ciril.fr/INALF/inalf.presentation/24.htm.
- Dartmouth Dante Database, an ongoing effort to put the entire text of over 60
commentaries on the Divina Commedia into a searchable database;
currently 46 of those commentaries (in Latin, Italian, and English) are
online. URL: gopher://gopher.Dartmouth.EDU:70/1/ftp/pub/Dante.
- Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia, "combines
an on-line archive of thousands of SGML-encoded electronic texts (some
of which are publicly available) with a library-based Center housing hardware
and software suitable for the creation and analysis of text". URL:
- Humanities Text Initiative, University of Michigan, "an
umbrella organization for the acquisition, creation, and maintenance of
electronic texts, as well as a mechanism for furthering the University's
capabilities in the area of online text". Many resources restricted
to users affiliated with subscribing institutions. URL: http://www.hti.umich.edu/.
- Literature Online (LION), a commercial service of Chadwyck-Healey,
an online version of the Full-Text Poetry Database "with reference
works, bibliographies and catalogues... [and] hypertext links to relevant
resources on other websites, both commercial and free". URL: http://www.chadwyck.co.uk/lion/.
- Oxford Text Archive, Oxford University, "exists to serve
the interests of the academic community by providing low-cost archival
and dissemination facilities for electronic texts". URL: http://sable.ox.ac.uk/ota/.
- Project Bartleby, Columbia University, offering ca. 30 titles of poetry and
prose prepared according to four standards: (1) accurate and loyal editions; (2) free public access; (3) careful, we--researched selection, and (4) state-of-the-art presentation. URL: http://www.cc.columbia.edu/acis/bartleby/.
- Project Runeberg, Linköping University, "publishes
Nordic literature and art on the Internet". URL: http://www.lysator.liu.se/runeberg/.
- Reference works
- Dictionaries and lexicons
- Collins COBUILD, "a department of HarperCollins Publishers,
specializing in the preparation of reference works for language learners
in English" based on a 320 million-word corpus of modern English.
- Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek Lexicon (both the "Big Liddell"
and the "Middle Liddell"). URL: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/lexica.html.
- Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edn. A commercial product; for
information see the Oxford English Dictionary Online, URL: http://www.oed.com/.
- Other reference works
- Athenians: A prosopography of ancient Athens, an Attic
prosopography of over 100,000 entries including "Athenian citizens at home and abroad, slaves, resident aliens, and foreigners
honored at Athens -- all the known men and women of Athens from the beginning of
alphabetic writing to the Byzantine period." URL: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080/attica/.
For other items, see the Voice of the Shuttle on reference works,
- Project Descriptions
These are Web sites describing serious research projects that are engaged
in electronic publication, either online (with entire collections or samplers)
or on CD-ROM. Projects with only rudimentary Web pages have not been included.
- Alonzo Church Publication Project, an online archive in support of the Collected Works of Alonzo Church and the festschrift, Logic, Language, and Computation: Essays in Honor of Alonzo
Church, with invitation to become a volunteer typesetter. Sponsored by the Association for Symbolic Logic and the UCLA Philosophy Department. URL: http://www.alonzo.org/.
- Blake, N.F. &al., The Canterbury Tales Project, "aims
to recover the transmission history of the Tales by transcription, collation,
and analysis of all the extant manuscripts", with CD, online, and
paper publications. URL: http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/projects/ctp/.
- British National Corpus Website, for "a very large (over 100 million words) corpus of modern English, both
spoken and written...produced by an consortium of leading dictionary publishers (OUP, Longman, Chambers-Harrap)
and academic research centres (Oxford University Computing Services, Unit for Computer Research in
the English Language at Lancaster University, British Library Research and Development)". URL: http://info.ox.ac.uk/bnc/.
- CELT: Irish Electronic Texts at University College Cork, "aims to produce an online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts.".. URL: http://curia.ucc.ie/curia/.
- DeBoer-Langworthy, Carol &al., Women Writers Project, Brown
University, "to create, develop, and make accessible a state-of-the-art
electronic textbase of women's writing in English before 1830... intended
to support a wide range of activities, including new research on texts,
information technology, and cultural history; publications and other textbase
products; and innovative approaches to teaching.". URL: http://twine.stg.brown.edu/projects/wwp/.
- Kiernan, Kevin, Electronic Beowulf Project, "a huge database
of digital images of the Beowulf manuscript and related manuscripts and
printed texts.... includes fiber-optic readings of hidden letters and ultraviolet
readings of erased text in the early 11th-century manuscript; full electronic
facsimiles of the indispensable 18th-century transcripts of the manuscript;
and selections from important 19-century collations, editions, and translations.
Major additions will include images of contemporary manuscript illuminations
and material culture, and links with the Toronto Dictionary of Old English
project and with the comprehensive Anglo-Saxon bibliographies of the Old
English Newsletter". URL: http://www.bl.uk/access/beowulf/electronic-beowulf.html.
- McCarty, Willard, Analytical Onomasticon Project, "to produce
a printed and electronic reference book to persons and places in the Metamorphoses
of Ovid". URL: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/humanities/cch/wlm/Onomasticon/.
- Reimer, Stephen R., Canon of John Lydgate Project, which seeks
to (1) collect and reassess the 'external' evidence for Lydgate's works,
(2) examine claims for and arguments against his authorship as argued by
later critics, (3) expand the present state of our knowledge about his
style by the contribution of new studies of the works with the aid of the
computer, and (4) apply the criteria estalished in stage three to the various
texts under consideration. URL: http://www.ualberta.ca/~sreimer/lydgate.htm.
- Saatkamp, Herman J., Jr., et al. The Santayana Edition. Project description and proposal. URL: http://snaefell.tamu.edu/Philosophy/Santayana/.
- Tombeur, Paul &al., CETEDOC Project, Le Centre de traitement électronique des documents
(CETEDOC), Louvain, publishers of databases of patristic and other Latin and Greek texts on CD-ROM. URL: http://www.fltr.ucl.ac.be/FLTR/TEDM/tedm.html.
- Willett, Perry, &al., Victorian Women Writers Project, Indiana
University, aims "to produce highly accurate transcriptions of literary
works by British women writers of the late 19th century, encoded using
the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)". URL: http://www.indiana.edu/~letrs/vwwp/.
For additional items, see for example the Institute for Academic Technology
in the Humanities, URL: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/.
- Conferences and colloquia
Face-to-face conferences now regularly advertise their existence on the Web and provide a variety of helpful materials for attendees. Abstracts or posters may be published online before the conference, and once delivered papers may then be made available as preprints or finished, informal (but not necessarily unrefereed) publications. The entire conduct of a conference or colloquium may be online, perhaps with the help of an electronic discussion group or "list".
- ACH-ALLC 97, the Joint International Conference of the Association for Computers and the Humanities and the Association for Literary & Linguistic Computing, 3-7 June 1997. URL: http://www.qucis.queensu.ca/achallc97/. Note also the conference page for the previous such event, ALLC/ACH 96, at Bergen, Norway, with abstracts and photographs from the conference, URL: http://www.hd.uib.no/allc-ach96.html.
- Electronic Publishing: a day conference, Centre for English Studies, University of London, 31 January 1997. Originally a programme for the conference, the Web page now serves as a venue for e-publication of some papers, one of which includes this page as supplementary material. URL: http://www.ohc.kcl.ac.uk/9701-conference.html.
- On-line Translation Colloquium, Facultat de Traducció i Interpretació, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 5-14 March 1997. Position papers online; adjunct discussion group, TRANSFER-L. URL: http://cc.uab.es/~iuts0/colloquium.html.
- Writing Across the Lines: Teaching with Technology, 20-22 March 1997, Scarborough College, University of Toronto. URL: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca:8080/~bgreensp/. See also François Lachance, The Written, the Archived and the Active, apparently a poster for this conference, URL: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~lachance/cost.htm.
- Self-publishing of non-refereed materials
The varieties that fall under this amorphous category are many. They
range from the playful "spaces", without scholarly content, to
the serious (or, serio ludere, the playfully serious) communication
of ongoing research that seeks to engage an audience. The standard mechanism
for self-publication is the WWW personal homepage, designated by a tilde
prefixing the person's account name in the address (URL). The personal
homepages of scholars sometimes or often mix refereed and non- refereed
publications; some of these are playful as well. As a service to others,
the author of a homepage may use it to publish links of useful materials.
Personal homepages also play an important role in telling the reader of
a linked publication who the author or editor is, and thus in helping to
establish or reinforce its reputation. The social and academic functions
are difficult or impossible to disentangle.
Following is a brief sampling of scholarly homepages from a variety
- Burnard, Lou (Humanities computing, Oxford), head of the Humanities Computing Unit at Oxford and European Editor of the Text Encoding Initiative. URL: http://users.ox.ac.uk/~lou/.
- Djerassi, Carl (Chemistry, Stanford). Homepage of the scientist responsible for the birth-control pill and a novelist who writes "science in fiction". URL: http://www.djerassi.com/. See also the Djerassi Resident Artists Program, not linked from the preceding homepage but discovered with the help ofa Web crawler, URL: http://www.otherminds.org/Djerassi.html.
- Even-Zohar, Itamar (Cultural Studies, Tel Aviv): papers and studies (in several languages), with special section for new work (requires password). URL: http://www.tau.ac.il:81/~itamarez/.
- Johnson, Eric (English
& College of Liberal Arts, Dakota State): teaching materials, selected
publications online, publications list. Johnson comments on the positive
reactions from students and notes that "In more than twenty years
that I have published articles, volumes, and papers in regular printed
form, I have received one or two comments from readers per year.
With my texts on the Web, I receive several comments each week --
I get a far better idea of who is reading and what is thought of my work."
Johnson observes that although students may be surprised to find personal
information on a professor's homepage, they "conclude that even professors
are human". URL: http://www.dsu.edu/~johnsone/.
- Kirschenbaum, Matthew G. (Ph.D. candidate, English, Virginia): statement of interests,
summary of dissertation topic, online c.v., selections of online writing,
materials for courses (syllabi, assignments, class list, collaborative
and individual projects, report on teaching, etc.). URL: http://faraday.clas.Virginia.EDU/~mgk3k/.
- Kraft, Robert A. (Religious Studies, Pennsylvania), a rich mixture of personal and professional
information along with publications, some of which are postprints of refereed
articles. URL: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/rs/rak/kraft.html.
- Ragde, Prabhakar (Computer Science, Waterloo), one of the best examples of imaginative (though
autobiographically factual) writing in hypertextual form. URL: http://plg.uwaterloo.ca:80/~plragde/.
- Stebelman, Scott (Library, George Washington Univ.), giving biographical information, link
to a résumé, and a directory to resources for the humanities. URL: http://gwis2.circ.gwu.edu/~scottlib/.
- Wooldridge, Russon (French, Toronto), elegantly designed with considerable scholarly
content. URL: http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wulfric/.
- Zavala, Carmen, Carmen's Page, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú (PUCP). URL: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/5132/.